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If you see a mark that simply says a country name it was made after 1890 for export to the United States.

Once the requirement for foreign origins was imposed, many American manufacturers also began marking their items with some indication of source to take advantage of "Buy American" sentiment.

, the Orchidaceae lack a definitive fossil record and thus many aspects of their evolutionary history remain obscure.

Here we report an exquisitely preserved orchid pollinarium (of Meliorchis caribea gen. nov.) attached to the mesoscutellum of an extinct stingless bee, Proplebeia dominicana, recovered from Miocene amber in the Dominican Republic, that is 15–20 million years (Myr) old.

In modern evolutionary divergence analysis the role of geological information extends beyond providing a timescale, to informing molecular rate variation across the tree.

Here I consider the implications of this development.

Our results indicate that the most recent common ancestor of extant orchids lived in the Late Cretaceous (76–84 Myr ago), and also suggest that the dramatic radiation of orchids began shortly after the mass extinctions at the K/T boundary.

These results further support the hypothesis of an ancient origin for Orchidaceae.

("in the year of the world") which dates events from the beginning of the creation of the earth as calculated through scripture.

Ancient civilizations such as Mesopotamia and Egypt based their calendars on the reigns of kings or the cycles of the seasons as set by the gods.

I use fossil calibrations to test the accuracy of models of molecular rate evolution for placental mammals, and reveal substantial misspecification associated with life history rate correlates.

Adding further calibrations to reduce dating errors at specific nodes unfortunately tends to transfer underlying rate errors to adjacent branches.

Items without a mark were either domestic American production, non-prestige imported production, or imported production that wasn't specifically produced for the American market.

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